Critical Thinking and its Relationship to the Knowledge Integration and Familiarity among University Students during Open-Book Tests
The study aimed to assess the relationship between critical thinking and knowledge integration and familiarity among university students during the open book tests. Also identifying levels of critical, knowledge familiar and integrating and critical thinking among university students. A targeted sample of 239 students had been drawn from the Psychology (division in the first, third, and fourth teams), Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences, Port Said University. The study relied on practical and social problems related to the courses taught to students. The study prepared the Critical Thinking Scale, Familiarity, and Knowledge Integration Scale. Use exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to verify the validity. The instruments had acceptable stability according to the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. The results confirmed the existence of a high positive correlation between critical thinking and knowledge integration and familiarity. This means that the learner has become more professional and experienced in dealing with and criticizing problems. And the studied knowledge became more familiar and integrated due to the formation and qualification of the knowledge structure with the continuous application of open-book tests. The levels of critical thinking, familiarity and integration of knowledge were high among the sample students according to descriptive statistics indices.
Angelosanti, M., Bernabei, L., Russo, M., D’Amico, A., Cantatore, E., Bernardini, G., & Currà, E. (2022). Towards a multi-risk assessment of Open Spaces and its users: A rapid survey form to collect and manage risk factors. In Sustainability in Energy and Buildings 2021 (pp. 209-218). Springer, Singapore.
Asp, I. E., Störmer, V. S., & Brady, T. F. (2021). Greater visual working memory capacity for visually matched stimuli when they are perceived as meaningful. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 33(5), 902-918.
Aziz, N. A. A. (2022). Socratic Method and SOLO Taxonomy as Assessment Instruments During COVID-19 Pandemic. In Engineering and Sciences Teaching and Learning Activities (pp. 71-81). Springer, Cham.
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory and language: An overview. Journal of communication disorders, 36(3), 189-208.
Brightwell, R., Daniel, J. H., & Stewart, A. (2004). Evaluation: Is an open book examination easier? Bioscience Education, 3(1), 1-10.
Critchley, H. D. (2005). Neural mechanisms of autonomic, affective, and cognitive integration. Journal of comparative neurology, 493(1), 154-166.
Dall, J. O., Wang, Y.-m., Cai, X.-l., Chan, R. C. K., & Sørensen, T. A. (2021). Visual short-term memory and attention: An investigation of familiarity and stroke count in Chinese characters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 47(2), 282–294. https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000950
Dozois, D. J., & Beck, A. T. (2008). Cognitive schemas, beliefs and assumptions. Risk factors in depression, 119-143.
Heijne‐Penninga, M., Kuks, J. B., Hofman, W. A., & Cohen‐Schotanus, J. (2008). Influence of open‐and closed‐book tests on medical students' learning approaches. Medical Education, 42(10), 967-974.
Heijne‐Penninga, M., Kuks, J. B., Hofman, W. A., & Cohen‐Schotanus, J. (2010). Influences of deep learning, need for cognition and preparation time on open‐and closed‐book test performance. Medical education, 44(9), 884-891.
Johanns, B., Dinkens, A., & Moore, J. (2017). A systematic review comparing open-book and closed-book examinations: Evaluating effects on development of critical thinking skills. Nurse Education in Practice, 27, 89-94.
Kelly, A., Moore, C., & Lyons, E. (2022). Traditional Exams, 21st Century Employability Skills and COVID-19: Disruptive Opportunities for Rethinking Assessment Design in Higher Education. STAR Scholar Book Series, 67-79.
Klichowicz, A., Rosner, A., & Krems, J. F. (2021). More than storage of information: What working memory contributes to visual abductive reasoning.
Koes-H, S., Pradana, S. D. S., & Suwasono, P. (2020, March). Integration conceptual scaffolding in the group investigation: its influence on students’ critical thinking skills. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1481, No. 1, p. 012132). IOP Publishing.
Liu, O. L., Frankel, L., & Roohr, K. C. (2014). Assessing critical thinking in higher education: Current state and directions for next‐generation assessment. ETS Research Report Series, 2014(1), 1-23.
Mar, R. A., & Peterson, J. B. (2013). Personal narratives as the highest level of cognitive integration. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36(3), 216-217.
Myyry, L., & Joutsenvirta, T. (2015). Open-book, open-web online examinations: Developing examination practices to support university students’ learning and self-efficacy. Active Learning in Higher Education, 16(2), 119-132.
Peter, E. E. (2012). Critical thinking: Essence for teaching mathematics and mathematics problem solving skills. African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research, 5(3), 39-43.
Pretorius, M. J., le Roux, M., & Geertsema, S. (2021). Verbal Working Memory in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Correlational Study. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 1525740121991475.
Rahayu, A., Syah, A., & Najib, A. (2021, June). Higher order thinking skills students in mathematical statistics course base on revised bloom taxonomy in factual and conceptual knowledge dimension. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1918, No. 4, p. 042076). IOP Publishing.
Rakes, G. C. (2008). Open book testing in online learning environments. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 7(1), 1-9.
Scott, W. D., Penningroth, S. L., Paup, S., Li, X., Adams, D., & Mallory, B. (2022). The Relational Self-Schema Measure: Assessing psychological needs in multiple self-with-other representations. Journal of Personality Assessment, 104(1), 74-85.
Şendağ, S., & Odabaşı, H. F. (2009). Effects of an online problem-based learning course on content knowledge acquisition and critical thinking skills. Computers & Education, 53(1), 132-141.
Shanta, S., & Wells, J. G. (2020). T/E design-based learning: assessing student critical thinking and problem-solving abilities. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 1-19.
Tatari, F., Raoufian, H., Mashhadi, M., & Gazerani, A. (2021). Effect of group open-book assessment on students’ learning and satisfaction: a quasi-experimental study. Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia, 16(1-2), 87.
Veenman, M., & Elshout, J. J. (1999). Changes in the relation between cognitive and metacognitive skills during the acquisition of expertise. European journal of psychology of education, 14(4), 509-523.
Worley, P. (2021). CONSIDERING WHERE IS GOD IN A CORONAVIRUS WORLD? AN EXERCISE IN CRITICAL THINKING. Think, 20(57), 135-151.
Zagury-Orly, I., & Durning, S. J. (2020). Assessing open-book examination in medical education: The time is now. Medical teacher, 1-2.
Copyright (c) 2022 Mahmoud Ali Moussa
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Creative Commons License: CC BY-NC
Creative Commons Rights Expression Language (CC REL)