# The performance level of Mathematics Teachers at The Secondary Level in Light of NCTM's Practices for Effective Teaching

### Abstract

The study aims to determine the performance level of mathematics teachers at the secondary level in light of NCTM’s effective teaching practices. In the book "From Principles to Procedures" in 2014, it consisted of (32) sub-practices, stemming from (8) main practices. The study concluded: that the level of performance of mathematics teachers at the secondary level in light of NCTM’s effective teaching practices was generally at a low degree, with an arithmetic mean of (1.56), and their performance level appeared in light of the practices of “asking purposeful questions, supporting the productive struggle in learning mathematics, And extracting evidence on students' thinking and use", to a medium degree, and with arithmetic averages (1.84, 1.77, 1.70), respectively. While the level of their performance appeared in the light of the practices of “facilitating meaningful mathematical dialogue, building procedural fluency from conceptual comprehension, setting mathematics objectives to focus learning, implementing tasks that enhance inference and problem solving, and using and linking mathematical representations” to a low degree, with arithmetic averages of (1.55, 1.52, 1.44, 1.36, 1.28) respectively. In light of the results of the study, a set of recommendations were presented.

### Downloads

### References

Abu Zina, Farid (2010). Developing and teaching school mathematics curricula. Amman: Wael Publishing House.

Al-Aidan, Hessa Abdulaziz; Al-Ruwais, Abdulaziz Muhammad (2020). Developing classroom discussion practices for secondary school mathematics teachers. Journal of Mathematics Education, 23(9), 189–241.

Al-Ashhab, Asma Abdullah, and Al-Shara', Ibrahim Ahmed Hussein. (2020). The reality of the classroom questions asked by mathematics teachers in the basic education stage in Libya: a qualitative study. The Jordanian Educational Journal, 5(4), 107-132.

Al-Awni, Saleh Salah (2011). Evaluating the skills of oral classroom questions performed by mathematics teachers in the intermediate stage (unpublished master's thesis), King Saud University, College of Education.

Al-Eidi, Amna Hamad; Al-Moatham, Khaled Abdullah. (1443 AH / 2022). A professional program based on Math Coaching in the light of the eight practices of effective teaching for middle school teachers, Fourth Excellence Conference "Science and Mathematics Learning Outcomes: Class Practices, National Test Results and International Studies" - Research Book, Center for Research Excellence in Science Education Development and Mathematics (I am thinking), in the period 14-16 / Shawwal / 1442 AH (15-17/5 / 2022), 39-67.

Al-Ghamdi, Abeer (2014). Teaching practices of mathematics teachers according to the proposed four-step teaching plan for the mathematics curriculum for the intermediate stage (unpublished master's thesis), King Saud University, College of Education, 189.

Al-Harbi, Samia (2013). The reality of female teachers’ use of the teaching strategies on which mathematics books are based in the secondary stage (unpublished master’s thesis), King Saud University, College of Education, 307.

Ali, Ali Taher Othman. (2016). Using assessment methods for secondary school mathematics teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Educational and Psychological Sciences, 17(4), 267-295.

Ali, Ali Taher Othman. (2016). Using assessment methods for secondary school mathematics teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Educational and Psychological Sciences, 17(4), 267-295.

Al-Khuzaim, Mohammed Hamad (2019). The performance level of mathematics teachers in the upper grades of the primary stage in the light of conceptual comprehension. Journal of Mathematics Education, 22(6), 157-177.

Al-Maliki, Mufreh bin Masoud bin Suleiman Al-Khalidi, and Al-Maqooshi, Abdullah bin Abdul Rahman. (2016). The reality of mathematics teaching in the light of technical demands for secondary school courses. Journal of Mathematics Education, 15(4), 292-328.

Al-Moatham, Khalid bin Abdullah Saleh (2008). Mathematics Education Research Trends in Postgraduate Studies in Universities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - An Analytical Study of Master's and Doctoral Theses (unpublished Ph.D. Thesis), Umm Al-Qura University, College of Education.

Al-Moatham, Khalid bin Abdullah Saleh (2013). Scientific production trends in mathematics education published in refereed Gulf journals. Journal of Mathematics Education, 16(5), 70-131.

Al-Moatham, Khalid bin Abdullah Saleh; Al-Menoufi, Saeed Jaber (2016). An analytical study of the professional standards for teaching mathematics issued by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in 2007 AD. Journal of Mathematics Education, 19(11), 217-258.

Al-Otaibi, Muqrin Penalty (2020). The performance level of mathematics teachers in the intermediate stage of classroom dialogue skills in light of NCTM standards (unpublished master's thesis), Qassim University, College of Education.

Al-Ruwais, Abdul-Aziz Muhammad. (2016). The reality of teaching practices in support of constructivist learning among secondary school mathematics teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Educational and Psychological Sciences, 17 (1), 161-187.

Al-Shahrani, Balkhair bin Muhammad bin Ayedh; Al-Khuzaim, Khalid bin Muhammad (2020). The reality of the teaching performance of mathematics teachers in the primary stage in Wadi Al-Dawasir Governorate in the light of mathematical communication skills. Journal of Mathematics Education, 23(1), 80 - 142.

Al-Shalhoub, Samar bint Abdulaziz; Al-Moatham, Khalid bin Abdullah Saleh; Abdel Hamid, Abdel Nasser Mohamed. (2019). Mathematics education research trends related to the project to develop mathematics and natural sciences curricula in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tabuk University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: Tabuk University, (6), 15-45.

Al-Shammari, A. B. p. B. S., Afaf bint Aliwi bin Saad, Al-Arini, & Hanan bint Abdul Rahman. (2019). The reality of the teaching practices of mathematics teachers at the primary stage in the light of mathematical prowess. Journal of Mathematics Education, 22(6), 85-137.

Amador, J. M. (2020). Teacher leaders’ mathematical noticing: Eliciting and analyzing. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 18(2), 295-313.

Amer, Tariq Abdel-Raouf Mohamed (2013). Studies in the preparation of the teacher, Al-Yazuri Publishing House, Amman, Jordan.

Amoako, I., Asamoah, D., & Bortey, J. (2019). Knowledge of formative assessment practices among senior high school mathematics teachers in Ghana. Open Journal of Social Science Research, 3(3), 8-13.

Anderson, L. W. (2002). Curricular alignment: A re-examination. Theory into Practice, 41(4), 255-260.

Anderson, L. W., & Bloom, B. S. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Longman,

Bal, A. P. (2014). The examination of representations used by classroom teacher candidates in solving mathematical problems. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 14(6).

Barton, C. (2018). On Formative Assessment in Math: How Diagnostic Questions Can Help. American Educator, 42(2), 33.

Bayoumi, Y. p. A., Yasser Abdel Rahim, Al-Jundi, & Hassan Awad Hassan. (2019). The reality of classroom teaching practices for primary school mathematics teachers in light of contemporary professional standards for teaching and learning mathematics. Journal of Mathematics Education, 22(1), 6-67.

Boston, M., Dillon, F. L., Smith, M. S., & Miller, S. (2017). Taking action: Implementing effective mathematics teaching practices in grades 9-12. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Bray, W. S. (2011). A collective case study of the influence of teachers' beliefs and knowledge on error-handling practices during class discussion of mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics education, 42(1), 2-38.

Cartwright, K. (2020). Analyzing students’ communication and representation of mathematical fluency during group tasks. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 60, 100821.

Cattey, C., & Patterson, C. DISCOVERING SQUARE ROOTS: PRODUCTIVE STRUGGLE IN MIDDLE SCHOOL MATHEMATICS.

Cattey, C., & Patterson, C. DISCOVERING SQUARE ROOTS: PRODUCTIVE STRUGGLE IN MIDDLE SCHOOL MATHEMATICS.

Center for Research Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education Development. (2014). Evaluation study of the Mathematics and Natural Sciences Development Project - Phase Three, Third Report. Center for Research Excellence in Developing Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University.

Daily, S. (2021). “Productive Struggle” as an Effective Strategy in Elementary Math Classrooms. International Journal of the Whole Child, 2021(6), 85-95.

DiNapoli, J. (2019). " Getting Better at Sticking with It": Examining Perseverance Improvement in Secondary Mathematics Students. North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education.

Dodeen, H., Abdelfattah, F., Shumrani, S., & Hilal, M. A. (2012). The effects of teachers’ qualifications, practices, and perceptions on student achievement in TIMSS mathematics: A comparison of two countries. International Journal of Testing, 12(1), 61-77.

Fakhro, A. (2003). Classroom Questions and their Relationship to the Final Examination Questions of the Year. Paper Presented in the Third Arab Scientific Conference for Gifted and Talented Care: Giftedness is a Priority in the age of Globalization, The Arab Universities for Education and Psychology 14(3), 214-243.

Gingerich, H. J. (2020). Instructional Coaching and Effective Mathematics Teaching Practices. Retrieved March 14, 2021 from: https://nwcommons.nwciowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1202&context=education_masters

Good, C. (1973). dictionary of Education. 3rd ed, New York: MC Grow Hill.

Graham, K. J., & Fennell, F. (2001). Principles and standards for school mathematics and teacher education: Preparing and empowering teachers. School Science and Mathematics, 101(6), 319-327.

Grant, Leslie; Exo, Xiankruan; Sun, Yiling (2014/2015). West Meets East: Best Practices for Expert Educators in the USA and China (Translated by Muhammad Bilal Al-Jayousi), Arab Bureau of Education for the Gulf States, Riyadh.

Grosser-Clarkson, D. L. (2016). Examining Secondary Mathematics Teacher Candidates’ Learning and Enactment of Mathematics Teaching Practices: A Multiple Case Study (Doctoral dissertation).

Kapur, M. (2010). Productive failure in mathematical problem solving. Instructional science, 38(6), 523-550.

Kaur, B., & Ghani, M. (2011). Learning experiences of Singapore's low attainers in primary mathematics.

Khathami, Fatima (2016). The level of practice of mathematics teachers' teaching strategies included in middle school books to create a positive environment for learning (unpublished master's thesis), King Saud University, College of Education, 289.

Lee, J. E., Lim, W., & Kim, H. J. (2016). Lesson Planning: How Do Pre-service Teachers Benefit from Examining Lesson Plans with Mathematics Teaching Practices as an Analytical Lens? Education of Primary School Mathematics, 19(3), 211-222.

Lim, W., Lee, J. E., Tyson, K., Kim, H. J., & Kim, J. (2020). An integral part of facilitating mathematical discussions: Follow-up questioning. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 18(2), 377-398.

Lim, W., Lee, J. E., Tyson, K., Kim, H. J., & Kim, J. (2020). An integral part of facilitating mathematical discussions: Follow-up questioning. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 18(2), 377-398.

Lomibao, L. S. (2016). Enhancing mathematics teachers’ quality through Lesson Study. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 1-13. Russo, J., Bobis, J., Downton, A., Livy, S., & Sullivan, P. (2021). Primary teacher attitudes towards productive struggle in mathematics in remote learning versus classroom-based settings. Education Sciences, 11(2), 35.

Mahmud, M. S. (2019). The role of wait time in the process of oral questioning in the teaching and learning process of mathematics. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 28(16), 691-697.

Mahmud, M. S. (2019). The role of wait time in the process of oral questioning in the teaching and learning process of mathematics. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 28(16), 691-697.

Marzano, Robert; Brown, John (2009/2016). Teacher's Guide to Teaching Book Art and Science (Translated by Shehda Farea), Arab Bureau of Education for the Gulf States, Riyadh.

Marzano, Robert; Pickering, Debra; Bullock, Jane (2001/2007). Effective Classroom Teaching: Strategies Extracted from Research to Increase Student Achievement (Translated by Saud Nasser Al Kathiri), King Saud University, Publishing House and Printing Press.

Mata-Pereira, J., & da Ponte, J. P. (2017). Enhancing students’ mathematical reasoning in the classroom: teacher actions facilitating generalization and justification. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 96(2), 169-186.

Mata-Pereira, J., & da Ponte, J. P. (2017). Enhancing students’ mathematical reasoning in the classroom: teacher actions facilitating generalization and justification. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 96(2), 169-186.

McGatha, M., & Bay-Williams, J. (2018). Everything you need for mathematics coaching: Tools, plans, and a process that works for any instructional leader.

Mhlolo, M. K., Schafer, M., & Venkat, H. (2012). The nature and quality of the mathematical connections teachers make. pythagoras, 33(1), 1-9.

Mohamed Abdel Aziz Issa, Najla. (2020). Evaluating the performance of mathematics teachers at the intermediate stage in light of the necessary teaching skills in Riyadh. The Educational Journal of the College of Education in Sohag, 79 (79), 1214-1257.

Molefe, N., & Brodie, K. (2010). Teaching mathematics in the context of curriculum change. Pythagoras, 2010(71), 33..

Murdoch, D., English, A. R., Hintz, A., & Tyson, K. (2020). Feeling heard: Inclusive education, transformative learning, and productive struggle. Educational Theory, 70(5), 653-679

Nasr, Muhammad Ali (2005). Future visions for developing teacher performance in light of the standard levels to achieve total quality, the seventeenth conference of the Egyptian Association of Curricula and Teaching Methods: Education Curricula and Standard Levels, Ain Shams University, July 26-27.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM]. (1991). Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics. Reston, VA, The Council.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM]. (2000). NCTM Principals & Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA, The Council.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM]. (2014). Principles to Actions: Executive Summary. Retrieved February 7, 2021 from: https://www.nctm.org/uploadedFiles/Standards_and_Positions/PtAExecutiveSummary.pdf

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM]. (2020). Moving forward: Mathematics learning in the era of COVID‐19.

Obeidat, Thoukan; Abdelhak, Kayed; Adass, Abdel Rahman. (2016 AD). Scientific research concept, tools and methods. 18th floor, Amman: Dar Al-Fikr.

Orr, S., & Bieda, K. (2020, December). Preparing to elicit student thinking: Supporting PST questioning in a university teaching experience. In Mathematics Education Across Cultures: Proceedings of the 42nd Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Mexico. 1(1).

Ortman, G., Glowacki, D., Churchill, M. & Kuckelman, K. (2000): Teacher evaluation handbook. Westmoreland County Public Schools.

Osman, A. M. (2011). Classroom discourse in mathematics lessons: a study of three teachers (Doctoral dissertation).

Patterson, N. D., & Norwood, K. S. (2004). A case study of teacher beliefs on students' beliefs about multiple representations. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 2(1), 5-23.

Piccolo, D. L., Harbaugh, A. P., Carter, T. A., Capraro, M. M., & Capraro, R. M. (2008). Quality of Instruction: Examining Discourse in Middle Schoo Mathematics Instruction. Journal of Advanced Academics, 19(3), 376-410.

Polly, D. (2014). Elementary school teachers’ use of technology during mathematics teaching. Computers in the Schools, 31(4), 271-292.

Quaid, b. B. M., Badi bin Miteb, Al Salem, & Ali bin Yahya. (2019). Teaching practices based on multiple intelligences among primary school mathematics teachers in Wadi Al-Dawasir Governorate. Journal of Mathematics Education, 22(1), 68-113.

Rakoczy, K., Klieme, E., Bürgermeister, A., & Harks, B. (2008). The interplay between student evaluation and instruction: Grading and feedback in mathematics classrooms. Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 216(2), 111-124.

Rodriguez, C., & Bonner, E. P. (2018). The impact of teacher questioning and open ended problems on mathematical communication. Journal of Teacher Action Research, 4(3), 68-89.

Roy, G. J., Fueyo, V., Vahey, P., Knudsen, J., Rafanan, K., & Lara-Meloy, T. (2016). Connecting representations: Using predict, check, explain. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 21(8), 492-496.

Russo, J., Bobis, J., Downton, A., Livy, S., & Sullivan, P. (2021). Primary teacher attitudes towards productive struggle in mathematics in remote learning versus classroom-based settings. Education Sciences, 11(2), 35.

Safak, R., Karatas, S., Valley, G., Karatas, V., Bulut, G., & Kartal, O. PRODUCTIVE STRUGGLE IN LEARNING MATHEMATICS: PRESERVICE ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS'’ESSON PLANS.

Shelton, R. N. (2020). An examination of designing and planning for the teaching of secondary mathematics methods courses through the lens of mathematics teaching practices: a multiple case study (Doctoral dissertation).

Slavin, R. E. (2010). Evidence-based reform in education. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, 54(1), 31-40.

Stein, M. K., Engle, R. A., Smith, M. S., & Hughes, E. K. (2008). Orchestrating productive mathematical discussions: Five practices for helping teachers move beyond show and tell. Mathematical thinking and learning, 10(4), 313-340.

Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (2009). The teaching gap: Best ideas from the world's teachers for improving education in the classroom. Simon and Schuster.

Stoyle, K. L. (2016). Supporting mathematical explanation, justification, and argumentation, through multimedia: A quantitative study of student performance (Doctoral dissertation, Kent State University).

Stylianou, D. A., & Blanton, M. L. (2011). Connecting Research to Teaching: Developing Students' Capacity for Constructing Proofs through Discourse. The Mathematics Teacher, 105(2), 140-145.

Suh, J., Gallagher, M. A., Capen, L., & Birkhead, S. (2021). Enhancing teachers' noticing around mathematics teaching practices through video-based lesson study with peer coaching. International Journal for Lesson & Learning Studies.

Toh, T. L. (2021). School calculus curriculum and the Singapore mathematics curriculum framework. ZDM–Mathematics Education, 53(3), 535-547.

Udun, Y., Aydar, J. C., Cevik, E., Sunbul, A., & Kartal, O. VIDEO ANALYSIS OF PRESERVICE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS: SUPPORTING PRODUCTIVE STRUGGLE IN A MATHEMATICS METHODS COURSE.

Vazquez, S. R., Ermeling, B. A., & Ramirez, G. (2020). Parental beliefs on the efficacy of productive struggle and their relation to homework-helping behavior. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 51(2), 179-203.

Viirman, O. (2015). Explanation, motivation and question posing routines in university mathematics teachers' pedagogical discourse: a commognitive analysis. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 46(8), 1165-1181.

Wilburne, J., Polly, D., Franz, D., & Wagstaff, D. A. (2018). Mathematics teachers' implementation of high‐leverage teaching practices: AQ‐sort study. School Science and Mathematics, 118(6), 232-243.

Wilkerson, T., Kerschen, K., & Shelton, R. (2018). PreService teachers’ critical connections to effective mathematical teaching practices: An instructional approach using vignettes. Action in Teacher Education, 40(4), 358-373.

Zambrano, J., Kirschner, F., Sweller, J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2019). Effects of group experience and information distribution on collaborative learning. Instructional Science, 47(5), 531-550.

*International Journal of Research in Educational Sciences.*,

*5*(4), 343 - 412. Retrieved from https://iafh.net/index.php/IJRES/article/view/370

Copyright (c) 2022 Faisal Salman Alotaibi, Khaled Abdullah Almatham

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License: CC BY-NC

**Creative Commons Rights Expression Language (CC REL)**