The requirements of applying Lean production in Egyptian Universities.

  • Mohamed Abdel Salam Mohamed Mahmoud El Balshi An expert teacher in the Directorate of Education in Damietta Governorate,
Keywords: Continuous improvement, problems of Egyptian universities, lean approach in Egyptian universities, lean approach, added value


Abstract: The study resulted in suggesting set of mechanisms to apply the Lean production approach in Egyptian universities, including legal requirements, organizational and human criteria requirements, financial needs, leadership requirements, application team needs, process selection requirements, and evaluation requirements.

The study recommended that the Egyptian universities should eliminate the traditional concepts of the management methods of the university and the inflexible traditional ideas. It should also adopt modern management approaches that will maximize the benefit of university operations by waste elimination and continuous improvement.

The possibility of Lean production application in the Egyptian universities is a function of providing the supporting leadership of the change process, continuous improvement, and the selection of the good qualified leadership that has the conviction of the importance of continuous improvement and development

In the meantime, the leaders of Egyptian universities should identify and benefit from the experiences of the universities that have applied the approach of (Lean production) successfully. They also should understand that the application of the Egyptian universities to the Lean production approach would achieve excellence and quality of its all operations.

Key words: Continuous improvement, problems of Egyptian universities, lean approach in Egyptian universities, the waste in Egyptian universities, added value.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Mohamed Abdel Salam Mohamed Mahmoud El Balshi, An expert teacher in the Directorate of Education in Damietta Governorate,

An expert teacher in the Directorate of Education in Damietta Governorate, 

معلم خبير بمديرية التربية والتعليم بمحافظة دمياط. مصر،


• Aboelmaged, M. G. (2011). Reconstructing Six Sigma barriers in manufacturing and service organizations: the effects of organizational parameters. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management(Vol. 28 ,No. 5).
• Academic Ranking of World Universities. (2016, May 29). Retrieved from
• Adel Abdel Fattah Salama. (2011). The reality of the management of institutions of higher education in the Arab world. The 13th Conference of Ministers Responsible for Higher Education and Scientific Research in the Arab Region - Development of Higher Education Administration in the Arab World. Abu Dhabi: Arab Organization for Education, Culture and Science. (In Arabic)
• Al - Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies. (2017). Strategic Economic Trends Report. (Magdy Sobhi, Editor) Cairo: Al-Ahram Foundation. (In Arabic)
• Al Gore. (2015). Future - Six engines for global change (version 423). (Adnan Girgis, Translators) Kuwait: Knowledge World Series - National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters. (In Arabic)
• Albliwi, S., Antony, J., Lim, S. A., & Wiele, T. v. (2014, November). Critical failure factors of Lean Six Sigma: a systematic literature review. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management.
• Almeanazel, O. T. (2010, September). Total Productive Maintenance Review and Overall Equipment Effectiveness Measurement. Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering(Volume 4, Number 4).
• Alves, A., Dinis-Carvalho, J., & Sousa, R. (2012). Lean production as promoter of thinkers to achieve companies’ agility. The Learning Organization(Vol. 19, No. 3).
• Antony , J., Krishan, N., Cullen, D., & Kumar, M. (2012). Lean Six Sigma for higher education institutions (HEIs) Challenges, barriers, success factors,tools/techniques. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management.
• Arab Reform Forum, Alexandria Library. (2005). Workshop on Follow-up to the Education Reform Conference in Egypt on 3 and 4 August 2005. Alexandria: Alexandria Library. (In Arabic)
• Arabic Republic of Egypt. (2014). Egypt's Constitution, amended 2014. Cairo: Amiri Press. (In Arabic)
• Ashour Ibrahim Aldsouki Eid. (2014). Value added - an introduction to the development of the performance of educational institutions. Cairo: The Anglo-Egyptian. (In Arabic)
• Balzer, M., Francis, D., Krehbiel, T., & Shea, N. (2016, may 12). A Review and Perspective on Lean in Higher Education. Quality Assurance in Education(Vol24,Iss4), pp. 444-445.
• Balzer, W. (2010). Lean Higher Education: Increasing the Value and Performance of University Processes. New york: CRC Press.
• Balzer, W. k., Brodke, M., & Kizhakethalackal, E. (2015, October 1). Lean higher education: successes, challenges, and realizing potential. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management(vol.32,Iss9), pp. 925-926.
• Boakye-Adjei, K., Thamma, R., & Kirby, E. D. (2014). Autonomation: The Future of Manufacturing. In Proceedings of the 2014 IAJC-ISAM International Conference. Orlando, Florida: ISBN.
• Cambridge Dictionary. (2017, January 31). Retrieved from
• Carlsson , D., & Fröberg, P. (2016). Lean Manufacturing and Company Integration. Sweden: Faculty of Engineering at Lund University.
• Center for Political and Strategic Studies. (2011). Strategic Economic Trends Report. (Ahmad Al-Sayed Al-Najjar, Editor) Cairo: Al-Ahram Foundation. (In Arabic)
• Center for Political and Strategic Studies. (2017). Arab Strategic Report 2016. (Amr Hashim Rabea, Mohamed Azalaab, Editors) Cairo: Al-Ahram Foundation. (In Arabic)
• Clotet, J. F. (2015). Lean production planning and control in semi-process industries,Master Thesis. Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology,Department of Production and Quality Engineering.
• Comm, C., & Cathaisel, D. (2003, 4 4). less is more :a framework for a sustainable university. international journal of sustainability in higher education.
• Convis, G. (2016, 5 28). Role of Management in a Lean Manufacturing Environment. Retrieved from
• Cooney, R. (2001). Is ‘lean’ a universal production system? Batch production in the automotive industry. International Journal of Operations & Production Management(Vol. 22 No. 10).
• Dankbaar, B. (1997). Lean production: denial, confirmation or extension of socio-technical systems design? Human Relations(Vol. 40, No. 3).
• De Treville, S., & Antonakis, J. (2006). Could lean production job design be intrinsically motivating? Contextual, configurational, and levels-of-analysis issues. Journal of Operations Management(Vol. 24 No. 2).
• Deshpande, S. p., Damle, V. V., Patel, M. L., & Kholamkar, A. B. (Jan-2015). Implementation of ‘5s’ Technique In a Manufacturing Organization: a case study. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology(Volume, 04 Issue, 01).
• Dudek-Burlikowska, M., & Szewieczek, D. (2009, September). The Poka-Yoke method as an improving quality tool of operations in the process. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering(Volume 36, Issue 1).
• Emiliani, M. (2015). Engaging faculty in lean. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma(Vol. 6, No. 1).
• Gomaa Saeed Tihami Abdul Jawad. (2015). The use of the value added approach in evaluating educational institutions. Cairo: The Anglo-Egyptian. (In Arabic)
• Hadia Mohamed Rashad Abu Baklila. (2015). Financing Higher Education in Arab Countries - Successful Experiences and Lessons Learned. - The 15th Conference of Ministers Responsible for Higher Education and Scientific Research in the Arab World: Financing Higher Education in the Arab World. Alexandria: Arab Organization for Education, Culture and Science. (In Arabic)
• Hallam, C. R. (2003). Lean enterprise self-assessment as a leading indicator for accelerating transformation in the aerospace industry,Doctoral dissertation. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
• Hallgren, M., & Olhager, J. (2009). Lean and agile manufacturing; external and internal drivers and performance outcomes. International Journal of Operations & Production Management(Vol. 29, No. 10).
• Hanenkamp, N. (2013). The Process Model for Shop Floor Management Implementation. Advances in Industrial Engineering and Management(Vol.2, No1 ).
• Haque, B., & Moore, M. (2004). Measures of performance for lean product introduction in the aerospace industry. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part B-Journalof Engineering Manufacture(Vol. 72, No. 1).
• Hayes, R., & Pisano, G. (1994). Beyond world-class – the new manufacturing strategy. Harvard Business Review(Vol. 72 No. 1).
• Heikkilä, V. T., Paasivaara, M., & Lassenius, C. (2016). Teaching University Students Kanban with a Collaborative Board Game. 38th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering Companion,May14:22. Austin,Texas,USA.
• Holweg, M. (2007). The genealogy of lean production. Journal of Operations Management.
• Hopp, W., & Spearman, M. (2004). To pull or not to pull: what is the question? Manufacturing and Service Operations Management(Vol. 6, No. 2).
• Hou, B., Chan, H. K., & Wang, X. (July 6 - 8, 2011). A Case Study of Just-In-Time System in the Chinese Automotive Industry. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering. London.
• (2017, feb 21). Retrieved from
• Imai, M. (1986). Kaizen: The key to Japan’s competitive success. New york: McGraw Hil.
• Imai, M. (2012). Gemba Kaizen: A Commonsense Approach to a Continuous Improvement Strategy (Vol. Second ). New york: McGraw-Hill.
• International Institute for Educational Planning. (2010). Educational Planning:approaches, challenges and international frameworks. Paris: UNESCO.
• Kootanaee, A. J., Babu, K. N., & Talari, H. F. (2013, March). Just-in-Time Manufacturing System:From Introduction to Implement. International Journal of Economics, Business and Finance(Vol. 1, No. 2).
• Krafcik, J. (1988). Triumph of the lean production system. Sloan Management Review(Vol. 30,No. 1).
• Liker, J. (1996). Becoming Lean . Portland: Productivity Press.
• Liker, J. K. (2004). The Toyota Way: 14 Management Principles from the World’s Greatest. New York: McGraw-Hill.
• Mahanna Mohamed Ibrahim Ghanaim. (2013). Value added to education ... concept, importance and methods of measurement. Conference of excellence in university performance (philosophy, mechanisms, standards). Port Said University: Port Said University. (In Arabic)
• Marc Garban. (2011).lean in Hospital: quality improvement, patient safety and employee satisfaction. Sharjah: Lin Gulf Institute. (In Arabic)
• Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (2000). Transitioning to A Lean Enterprise:A Guide for Leaders. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
• McManus, H. L., & Millard, R. L. (8-13 September, 2002). value stream analysis and mapping for product development. Proceedings of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences. Toronto, Canada.
• Merriam-Webster. (2017, January Saturday). Retrieved January Saturday, 2017, from
• Ministry of Finance of the Arab Republic of Egypt. (2017). Financial Statement on the Draft State Budget for the fiscal year 2017/2018. Cairo: Ministry of Finance. (In Arabic)
• Mitchell , D., & Nielsen, S. (2012). Globalization - Education and Management Agendas. (H. Montiel, Ed.) Vienna: intech. Retrieved from
• Mohammed Abdul Salam El Balshi. (2016). Requirements to apply the continuous improvement approach (kaizen) for the reform of the Egyptian General Secondary Education, Master,. University of Damietta: Faculty of Education. (In Arabic)
• Najla Fathi Maghouri Maselhi. (2013). Problems of students coming to Egyptian universities in light of the requirements of universal university education (Master Thesis). Cairo: Cairo University, Institute of Educational Studies. (In Arabic)
• Naylor, J., Naim, M., & Berry , D. (1999). Leagility: integrating the lean and agile manufacturing paradigms in the total supply chain. International Journal of Production Economics(Vol. 62 ,No. 1).
• Oates, P. (2017, Feb 18th). Overcoming barriers to LEAN change in higher education. Retrieved from
• Ohno, T. (1988). Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production. New York: Productivity Press.
• Osama Abdel Aziz Al Shanwani. (2011). Modern trends in management and performance development: Six Sigma. (Vol. II). Cairo: Cairo University Press Center.(In Arabic)
• Patil, P. S., Parit, S. P., & Burali, Y. (2013, February). Review Paper On “Poka Yoke: The Revolutionary Idea In Total Productive Management. International Journal Of Engineering And Science(Vol. 2, Issue 4).
• Penelope Perzikop. (2008). Six Sigma: for excellence in business. (Mohammad Yousef, Translators) Riyadh: Obeikan. (In Arabic)
• Rao, S., & Rao, K. (2016). Review Article on 5S – Most Powerful Lean Manufacturing Tool. International Journal of Engineering Research(Volume No.5 Issue Special 2).
• Reddy, K. B. (2013). implement of lean educational institutions. Texas, San Antonio, USA: The University of Texas at San Antonio.
• Robinson , M., & Yorkstone, S. (2014). Becoming a Lean University: The Case of the University of St Andrews. Leadership and Governance in Higher Education(Volume No. 1).
• Robinson, M., & Yorkstone, S. (2014, July 12). lg-handbook. Retrieved 9 30, 2016, from
• Rothstein, J. (2004). Creating lean industrial relations: general motors in Silao, Mexico. Competition and Change(Vol. 8, No. 3).
• Samir Riad Hilal. (2012). Financing Higher Education in Egypt. By Asma al-Badawi (eds.), Higher Education in Egypt: Does Freeism Lead to Equal Opportunities. Cairo: International Population Council.
• Shaaban, M. S., & Awni, A. H. (2014). Critical success factors for total productive manufacturing (TPM) deployment at Egyptian FMCG companies. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management(Vol.25, Iss 3).
• Shah, R., & Ward, P. (2003). Lean manufacturing: context, practice bundles, and performance. Journal of Operations Management(Vol. 21, No. 2).
• Shah, R., & Ward, P. (2007). Defining and developing measures of lean production. Journal of Operations Management(Vol. 25 No. 1).
• Singh, R. (1998). Lean manufacturing: changing paradigms in product manufacturing, design & supply. The Third International Conference on Quality Management. Retrieved January 30, 2017, from
• Singh, S., & Garg, D. (2011, March). JIT System: Concepts, Benefits and Motivation in Indian Industries. InternatIonal Journal of ManageMent & BusIness studIes(Vol. 1, Issue 1).
• Stone, K. B. (2012). Four decades of lean: a systematic literature review. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma(Vol. 3 No. 2).
• Stone, K. B. (2012). Lean Transformation: Organizational Performance Factors that Influence Firms’ Leanness. Journal of Enterprise Transformation(Summer2012).
• Sultan Barakat, and Sansom Milton. (2015). The importance of wisdom houses: The responsibility of protecting and rebuilding higher education in the Arab world. Doha: The Brookings Doha Center. (In Arabic)
• Taj, S., & Morosan, C. (2011). The impact of lean operations on the Chinese manufacturing performance. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management(Vol. 22, No. 2).
• Tregubova, A., & Laneb, J. A. (17–19 March 2015). Simulation of Kanban-based scheduling for systems of systems:initial results. 13th Annual Conference on Systems Engineering Research (pp. 224 – 233). New York: Elsevier B.V.
• Tsigkas, A. C. (2013). The Lean Enterprise:From the Mass Economy to the Economy of One. Heidelberg: Springer .
• UNESCO. (9 October 1998). World Conference on higher education. Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century;vision and action.
• Vinodh , S., & Ben Ruben, R. (2015). Research Advances in Industrial Engineering. (J. P. Davim, Ed.) Aveiro: Springer International Publishing .
• Wakjira, M. W., & Singh, A. P. (2012, February). Total Productive Maintenance:A Case Study in Manufacturing Industry. Global Journal of Researches in Engineering(Volume12,Issue 1, Version I).
• Waterbury, T. A. (2008). Lean in Higher Education: a Delphi Study To Develop performance metrics and an educational lean improvement model for academic environments (doctor). Capella: Capella Universty.
• Womack, J., & Jones, D. (1994). From lean production to the lean enterprise. Harvard Business Review(Vol. 72, No. 2).
• Womack, J., & Jones, D. (2003). Lean Thinking. New York: Free Press.
• Womack, J., & Jones, P. (1996). Lean thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your corporation. New York: Simon and Schuster.
• Womack, J., Daniel, J., & Roos, D. (1991). The Machine That Changed The World: The Story of Lean Production. New York: HarperPerennial.
• Womack, J., Jones, D., & Roos, D. (1990). The Machine that Changed the World. New York: Rawson Associates.
• World Economic Forum. (2016, may 29). Retrieved 2016, from
• World Economic Forum. (2018). Global Competitiveness Index 2017–2018 Rankings. (K. Schwab, Ed.) Geneva: World Economic Forum. Retrieved from
• Worley, J. (2004). The role of socio-cultural factors in a lean manufacturing implementation,unpublished master thesis. Corvallis: Oregon State University.
• Zahraee, S. M., Hashemi, A., Abdi, A. A., Shahpanah, A., & Rohani, J. M. (2014). Lean Manufacturing Implementation Through Value Stream Mapping: ACase Study. Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences & Engineering)(vol68,No3).
How to Cite
El Balshi, M. (2018). The requirements of applying Lean production in Egyptian Universities. International Journal of Research in Educational Sciences. (IJRES), 2(1), 267 - 328. Retrieved from